English Grammar

Literary colloquial style

Phonetic features:

a) Standard pronunciation in compliance (in accordance) with the national norm, enunciation (хорошая дикция).

b) Phonetic compression of frequently used forms, e.g. it’s, don’t, I’ve.

c) Omission of unaccented elements due to the quick tempo, e.g. you know him?

Morphological features: Use of regular morphological features, e. g. evaluative suffixes deary, doggie, duckie.

Syntactical features:

a) Use of simple sentences with a number of participial and infinitive constructions and numerous parentheses.

b) Syntactically correct utterances compliant with the literary norm

c) Use of various types of syntactical compression, simplicity of syntac­tical connection.

d) Prevalence of active and finite verb forms.

e) Use of grammar forms for emphatic purposes, e. g. progressive verb forms to express emotions of irritation, anger etc.

f) Decomposition and ellipsis of sentences in a dialogue (easily recon­structed from the context).

g) Use of special colloquial phrases, e. g. that friend of yours.

Lexical features:

a) Wide range of vocabulary in accordance with the register of communication and participants’ roles: formal and informal, neutral and bookish, terms and foreign words.

b) Basic stock of communicative vocabulary – stylistically neutral.

c) Use of socially accepted contracted forms and abbreviations, e. g. fridge for refrigerator, ice for ice-cream, TV for television, CD for compact disk, etc.

d) Use of etiquette language and conversational formulas, such as nice to see you, my pleasure, on behalf of, etc.

e) Extensive use of intensifies and gap-fillers, e.g. absolutely, definitely, awfully, kind of, so to speak, I mean, if I may say so.

f)Use of interjections and exclamations, e. g. Dear me, My God, Goodness, well, why, now, oh.

g) Extensive use of phrasal verbs let sb down, put up with, stand sb up (to betray, to let sb down).

h) Use of words of indefinite meaning like thing, stuff.

i)Avoidance of slang, vulgarisms, dialect words, jargon.

j) Use of phraseological expressions, idioms and figures of speech.

Compositional features:

a) Can be used in written and spoken varieties: dialogue, monologue, personal letters, diaries, essays, articles, etc.

b) Prepared types of texts may have logical composi­tion, determined by conventional forms (letters, presentations, articles, interviews).

c) Spontaneous types have a loose structure, relative coherence and uniformity of form and content.

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