English Dialectology

Key factors influencing the formation of dialect speech

history of development of any language is closely connected with history of development of the people speaking in this language. Therefore to study formation and development of this or that language it is impossible in a separation from deep studying of history of the state and the people. In this regard, the history of English can be divided into three periods: Old English, Middle English, new English, but V. D. Arakin allocates one more – the most ancient.of English language history by V. D. Arakin:

. The most ancient period – the period dated by time between the first centuries AD of the VII-VIII centuries. It is the period of language existence of Old English tribes which lay down then in a basis of an English nationality. These languages possessed a number of qualitative signs which, however, can be restored only thanks to comparative-historical research as written monuments of this period we didn’t reach;

. The Old English period (Anglo-Saxon) – VII-XI centuries, since invasion of the German tribes to the British Isles to a gain of Britain Normans (Normans) in 1066; it is the period of language of a developing English nationality;

. Middle English period – the period dated by time of wars of the XI-XV centuries, to feudal Scarlet and a White Rose (1455-1485) and publishing introductions in England (1477). It is the period of language of the developed English nationality which is gradually developing into the nation.

. The new English period – the period since the end of the XV century up to now, is subdivided into two periods: а) early new English – the period of formation of national language norms and) late new English – the period of the developed national language norms.period of English language is characterized by certain, peculiar lines for it. In other words, language changed in time. Precisely as well dialects during the different periods changed, passed a certain evolution. [1; 253]- a version of language which is used as a means of communication by the people tied among them by one territory. According to V.M. Zhirmunskii, “the dialect represents unity not primordially this, but developed historically in the course of socially caused interaction with other dialects of public language, as result not only differentiations, but also integration: unity developing, dynamic as character of isoglosses of the language card which is visually reflecting communication stories of language with history of the people testifies to that”. The dialect can differ from other dialects of the same language with features of any part of linguistic structure – morphology, phonetics, lexicon or syntax. [3; 23]main reason for emergence of dialect distinctions is weakening of communications and relative isolation of various groups of a linguistic community. As language represents the phenomenon historically changing, in its various innovations which, having arisen originally in one place constantly arise, then gradually extend. As a rule, however, a little close connection between members of a linguistic community is at a loss.synchronous condition of phonetic system of modern English dialects is directly caused by specifics of its historical development in this or that area, mutual contacts of dialects, influence of language samples of the won language or absence of such influence. If in some territories (especially southern) the pronunciation of a number of sounds and sound combinations coincides with a literary standard (the last to some extent got into all dialects), in other areas it is possible to note considerable divergences in comparison with national language – a pronunciation of separate sounds in English dialects in some cases not only differs from literary, but also is differentiated in separate territories.main phonetic differences of dialects from a literary standard are consisted both in quantitative characteristics, and in quality indicators of separate sounds. For dialects the pronunciation of those sounds which in literary option aren’t said at all is very characteristic. On the other hand, many sounds said in literary option, in dialects fall. Use of parasitic sounds in a word, dissimilation is also characteristic.there is no dialect which would have parallel differences as in the field of phonetics as in grammar. The grammatical and phonetic divergence of local language systems has cross character more often. So, if to present that any language has four dialects a, b, c, d, it is not obligatory, that the dialect a differed from any other dialect both at level of phonetics and at grammar level. On the contrary, the dialect a can have divergences of a phonetic order and full grammatical similarity to a dialect b or to any other dialect. In the same way grammatical distinction isn’t surely accompanied by phonetic distinction. Therefore classification can be more or less satisfactory if it is under construction on a basis either phonetic (phonologic), or grammatical criteria. Phonetic change cannot be accompanied by change in area of a grammatical system of language and on the contrary. In the same way changes in area of syntax can be made regardless of the fact that occurs in other areas of language.language mixture of two closely related dialects or languages observed gluing in elements of grammatical system of one language or a dialect in grammatical system of other language or a dialect.of dialect lexicon in language are various. So, in the sphere of oral communication in this or that territory they still remain one of means of communication. In written forms of language (for example, regional newspapers) some dialects help local readers to call separate subjects, the phenomena, processes.fiction language dialects are used for the image of local geographical features, specifics of a life, culture. They help to characterize heroes more brightly, to transfer identity of their speech, and sometimes serve also as means of satirical coloring.use of dialectal words in fiction language, in newspaper speech – is one of the ways of their penetration into the literary language.lexical dialects scientists allocate three groups:

. Actually lexical. Words which coincide with common-literary on value are called as actually lexical dialecticisms, but differ the sound complex. They call the same concepts, as words of the literary language identical to them, which is some kind of synonyms to words of the literary language.

. Lexico-semantic. The words coinciding in writing and a pronunciation with literary, but different from them by the value are called as lexico-semantic dialecticisms.

. Ethnographic. Words which are also widespread only in a certain dialect are called as ethnographic dialecticisms and reflect local features of labor activity, of life and so on.the bulk dialectal words are not a component of common-literary lexicon. But through informal conversation (especially through popular speech) dialecticisms get into the literary language.

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